Go to Triangle Digital Support Home Page TDS9092 TECHNICAL MANUAL
Forth word list
: to @TIME
Live website search
Enter key words




SYNTAX: : cccc . ;

COMPILING: Used in a form called a colon-definition. Creates a dictionary entry defining cccc as equivalent to the following sequence of Forth word definitions "." until the next ; or ;CODE . The compiling process is done by the text interpreter as long as STATE is non-zero. Other details are that the CONTEXT vocabulary is set to the CURRENT vocabulary and that words with the precedence bit set are executed rather than being compiled.



Terminate a colon definition and stop further compilation. Compiles the run-time word ;S .



: cccc ..(high level).. ;CODE ..(assembly)

COMPILING: Stop compilation and terminate a new defining word cccc by compiling ;CODE . Assemble to machine code the following mnemonics.

EXECUTING: When cccc later executes in the form:

cccc nnnn .

the word nnnn will be created with its execution procedure given by the machine code following cccc . That is, when nnnn is executed, it does so by jumping to the code after nnnn . An existing defining word such as CREATE must exist in cccc prior to ;CODE .



Stop interpretation of a screen. ;S is also the run-time word compiled at the end of a colon definition which returns execution to the calling procedure (same as Brodie's EXIT ).


n1 n2 - f

Leave a true flag if n1 is less than n2 ; otherwise leave a false flag.



Set up for pictured numeric output formatting using the words <# # #S SIGN #> . The conversion is done on a double number producing text in memory just below PAD .


- b

Waits for a byte to be received on serial input SIN1 at pin a25. At power-up (KEY) is vectored to execute <(KEY)> . See (KEY) KEY 'KEY and EMIT .


n1 n2 - f

Flag f is 1 if n1 and n2 are unequal, and 0 otherwise. Opposite of = .


- f

Checks whether the last character received on serial port SIN1 was ctrl+C (03) or not. If it was then f=1, otherwise f=0. The same happens on serial data overrun, or if a framing error occurs, so that the BREAK key of a dumb terminal will work. At power-up the action of ?TERMINAL is to execute <?TERMINAL> . See EMIT .



: cccc <BUILDS  .  DOES>  .  ;

COMPILING: Used within a colon definition.

EXECUTING: Each time cccc is executed, <BUILDS defines a new word with a high level execution procedure. Executing cccc in the form cccc nnnn uses <BUILDS to create a dictionary entry for nnnn with a call to the DOES> part for nnnn. When nnnn is later executed, it has the address of its parameter area on the stack and executes the words after DOES> in cccc . <BUILDS and DOES> allow run-time procedures to be written in high level rather than in assembler code (as required by ;CODE ).


b -

Send byte to serial output SOUT1 at pin c25. At power-up EMIT is vectored to execute this word. See EMIT .


addr count -

Transfer characters from the terminal to memory area starting at addr until a return or the count of characters have been received. Backspaces are handled. Three nulls are added at the end of the text. Serial Port 1 is the default input at power-up but this can be re-vectored using '(KEY) . <EXPECT> is the default action of EXPECT . Since EXPECT is vectored through 'EXPECT its action can be changed.



This is the outer text interpreter which sequentially executes or compiles text from the input stream (terminal or screens) depending on STATE . If the word name cannot be found after a search of CONTEXT and then CURRENT vocabularies it is converted to a number according to the current base. That also failing, an error message echoing the name with ? - UNDEFINED is given. Text input is taken according to the convention for WORD . <INTERPRET> is the default action of INTERPRET . Since INTERPRET is vectored through 'INTERPRET its action can be changed.


addr - d

Convert a character string at address addr to a signed double number, using the current numeric base. The string is assumed to have a preceding count at addr itself and this is ignored. The string should have at least one trailing space. If a decimal point is encountered in the text, its position will be given in DPL , but no other effect occurs. If numeric conversion is not possible then the error message ? - UNDEFINED is given. This word is the default action of NUMBER . Since NUMBER is vectored through 'NUMBER its action can be changed.


c n -

Puts character c at position n on LCD. E.g.

65 2 < PUT>

will place the character A (ASCII value 65) at the third from the left position on the LCD (as with other Forth counts, the left position is 0). Usually <PUT> is not used directly. At power-up PUT is vectored to <PUT> through the user variable 'PUT . The word PUT can be used as the primitive to write to the LCD. See PUT 'PUT and AT .


addr blk f -

The standard linkage to the RAM mass memory on the TDS9092. addr specifies the source or destination block buffer, blk is the sequential number of the referenced block or screen; and f is a flag with f=0 for write and f=1 for read. <R/W> determines the location in the RAM and performs the read-write and error-checking. On power up R/W is vectored to execute <R/W> through the user variable 'R/W and R/W is the word used by higher level functions like BLOCK . The action of BLOCK can be changed by re-vectoring R/W to a user defined word instead of <R/W> . E.g.

: R/W .(new action) ;

 ' R/W CFA 'R/W !


n1 n2 - f

Leave a true flag if n1=n2, otherwise leave a false flag.


n1 n2 - f

Leave a true flag if n1 is greater than n2, otherwise leave a false flag.


n1 - n2

Swaps the top and bottom bytes of n1 to form n2. Useful for input/output with byte-wide ports. E.g. get a number on the stack from two bytes input on Port 6:

HEX 0017 C@ >< 0017 C@ +

(Port 6 is at address hex 0017).


n - day month year

Converts the number of days n since 1st Jan 1984 to three numbers representing the equivalent date. Account is taken of leap-years. Valid to the year 2073. DMY> does the reverse.


n -

Remove a number from the parameter stack and place it on the return stack. Use should normally be balanced by >R in the same definition.


d - secs mins hrs

Converts a double number representing 'ticks' since midnight to the equivalent seconds, minutes and hours as three items on the stack. Usually used after @TIME .


addr -

Display the value contained at the address according to the current base. A trailing blank is also displayed.



Issue error message ?  - COMP. ONLY if not compiling.



Issue error message ?  - INCOMPLETE if stack position differs from value saved in user variable CSP .


f n -

Issue error message number n if the boolean flag is true.



Issue error message ?  - EXEC. ONLY if not executing.


n -

Gives an error message ?  - DICT FULL if there are not n bytes left in the dictionary.



Issue error message ?  - LOADG ONLY if not loading (compiling from screen).


n1 n2 -

Issue an error message ?  - NOT PAIRED if n1 does not equal n2.



Issue an error message ?  - FULL STACK or ?  - EMPTY STK if stack is out of bounds. On the TDS9092 the stack is 260 bytes.


- f

On power-up ?TERMINAL checks if the last character received was ctrl+C (03) or if there is any serial error flag. If so, flag f is true, otherwise false (0). It is vectored to execute <?TERMINAL> but its function can be changed. See EMIT .


- u

Used in a colon definition to provide the time u in microseconds taken by the words since 0TIME in the same definition. There is a maximum of 53333s and a longer delay should either be broken into parts or it should be measured by reading the on-board clock in ticks, mins and days before and after the event. E.g.

: TEST 1000 2000 0TIME U* ?TIME U. 2DROP ;

Execution of TEST shows the time in microseconds taken by U* .


addr - n

Leave the 16-bit content n of address addr.


- n

Gives the number of days since 1st January 1984. This date is day 0 and this is the date set at power-up.


- d

Gives the number of 'ticks' since midnight, or power-up if time has not been set. A 'tick' is 53.333ms and there are exactly 1125 in a minute. See TICKS for detail. A double number is returned. Useful for measuring time between two events. Take the time at beginning and end, then subtract.

Go to Triangle Digital Support Home Page Go to top   Next page